Rai, A., Maruping, L.M., and Venkatesh, V. “Offshore Information Systems Project Success: The Role of Social Embeddedness and Cultural Characteristics,” MIS Quarterly (33:3), 2009, 617-641.

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Agency theory has played a significant role in identifying drivers of offshore information system (IS) project success. Consequently, the role of relational factors in driving project success has been overlooked in this literature. In this paper, we integrate the social embeddedness perspective and the culture literature by theorizinghow and why relational factors affect the success of offshore IS projects that are strategic in nature, and by identifying organizational and interpersonal cultural differences as critical success factors in this context. Using data from a longitudinal field study of 155 offshore IS projects managed by 22 project leaders, we found evidence of a relationship between hypothesized relational factors and two measures of offshore IS project success—namely, project cost overruns and client satisfaction—over and above the effects of project characteristics and agency factors. Specifically, we found that information exchange, joint problem-solving, and trust reduce project cost overruns and improve client satisfaction. We also found a relationship between cultural differences at the organizational and team level, and offshore IS project success. The model explained 40% and 41% of the variance in project cost overruns and client satisfaction respectively for projects with a client representative. For projects with no client representative, the model explained 35% and 37% of the variance in project cost overruns and client satisfaction respectively. Collectively, the results have important theoretical and practical implications for how client-vendor relationships should be managed when partnering with offshore firms and designing offshore IS project teams.
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    Sykes, T.A., Venkatesh, V., and Gosain, S. “Model of Acceptance with Peer Support: A Social Network Perspective to Understand Employees’ System Use,” MIS Quarterly (33:2), 2009, 371-393.

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    Prior research has extensively studied individual adoption and use of information systems, primarily using beliefs as predictors of behavioral intention to use a system, which in turn predicts system use. We propose a model of acceptance with peer support (MAPS) that integrates prior individual research with social networks constructs. We argue that an individual’s embeddedness in the social network of the organizational unit implementing a new information system can enhance our understanding of technology use. An individual’s co-workers can be important sources of help in overcoming knowledge barriers constraining use of a complex system; and interactions with others can determine an employee’s ability to influence eventual system configuration and features. We incorporate network density (reflecting “get-help” ties for an employee) and network centrality (reflecting “give-help” ties for an employee), drawn from prior social network research, as key predictors of system use. Further, we conceptualize valued network density and valued network centrality, both of which take into account ties to those with relevant system-related information, knowledge and resources, and employ them as additional predictors. We conducted a 3-month long study of 87 employees. The results confirmed our theory that social network constructs can significantly enhance our understanding of technology use over and above predictors from prior individual-level adoption research.
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      Bala, H., Venkatesh, V., Venkatraman, S., Bates, J., and Brown, S.H. “Disaster Response in Health Care: A Design Extension for Enterprise Data Warehouse,” Communications of the ACM (52:1), 2009, 136-140.

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      An Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) is developed to meet the needs of strategic decision making that operational data sources and systems such as online transaction processing (OLTP), by design, cannot support. In this article, we present an EDW architectural extension for the health care organizations so that they can continue providing high quality patient care during large-scale disasters. We develop this extension based on our study of the Veteran Health Administration’s (VHA) information technology (IT) systems and responses during Hurricane Katrina.
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        Venkatesh, V., Brown, S.A., Maruping, L.M., and Bala, H. “Predicting Different Conceptualizations of System Use: The Competing Roles of Behavioral Intention, Facilitating Conditions, and Behavioral Expectation,” MIS Quarterly (32:3), 2008, 483-502.

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        Employees’ underutilization of new information systems undermines organizations’ efforts to amass the expected benefits from such systems. The two main predictors of technology use in prior research—behavioral intention and facilitating conditions—have limitations that we discuss. We introduce behavioral expectation as a predictor that addresses the limitations of behavioral intention and facilitating conditions and provides a better understanding of technology use. Use is examined in terms of its three key conceptualizations—duration, frequency, and intensity. Drawing on recent work on conceptualizations of use, we develop theoretical links between behavioral intention and behavioral expectation, and the various conceptualizations of use. We argue that the cognitions underlying behavioral intention and behavioral expectation differ and consequently, the mechanisms through which they influence different conceptualizations of use differ as well. We test the proposed model in the context of a longitudinal field study of 321 users of a new information system. The model explains 65%, 60%, and 60% of the variance in duration, frequency, and intensity of use respectively. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
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          Venkatraman, S., Bala, H., Venkatesh, V., and Bates, J. “Six Strategies for Electronic Medical Records Systems,” Communications of the ACM (51:11), 2008, 140-144.

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          The health care sector, despite its importance, is still behind most other industries such as retail, manufacturing, and financial services to leverage information technology (IT) for operational and strategic purposes. Effective development and successful implementation of IT systems are immensely critical for the health care sector as it has direct implications for patient safety, mortality, and better quality of life. In this paper, based on a case study of one of the largest health care providers in the nation, the Veteran Health Administration (VHA), we discuss several potential drawbacks of current electronic medical records (EMR) systems and offer six key strategies for development and improvement. We expect that these strategies will have important ramifications for the overall IT architecture of health care providers and help them improve the quality of patient care.
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            Venkatesh, V. and Bala, H. “Technology Acceptance Model 3 and a Research Agenda on Interventions,” Decision Sciences (39:2), 2008, 273-315. [Ranked among the 50 papers to receive Emerald’s Citations of Excellence award for 2012; in 2014, ranked among the 35 most-cited papers across 15 years of award winners; most cited of all papers ever published in Decision Sciences]

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            Prior research has provided valuable insights into how and why employees make a decision about the adoption and use of information technologies (ITs) in the workplace. From an organizational point of view, however, the more important issue is how managers make informed decisions about interventions that can lead to greater acceptance and effective utilization of IT. There is limited research in the IT implementation literature that deals with the role of interventions to aid such managerial decision making. Particularly, there is a need to understand how various interventions can influence the known determinants of IT adoption and use. To address this gap in the literature, we draw from the vast body of research on the technology acceptance model (TAM), particularly the work on the determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and: (i) develop a comprehensive nomological network (integrated model) of the determinants of individual level (IT) adoption and use; (ii) empirically test the proposed integrated model; and (iii) present a research agenda focused on potential pre- and postimplementation interventions that can enhance employees’ adoption and use of IT. Our findings and research agenda have important implications for managerial decision making on IT implementation in organizations.
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              Brown, S.A., Venkatesh, V., Kuruzovich, J., and Massey, A.P. “Expectation Confirmation: An Examination of Three Competing Models,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (105:1), 2008, 52-66.

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              We discuss three theoretical models from met expectations research in the fields of organizational behavior and consumer psychology. Based on the fundamental arguments in the models, we term these models: disconfirmation, ideal point, and experiences only. We present three-dimensional graphical and analytical representations of the models with satisfaction being a function of expectations and experiences. We tested the models in the context of a new information system implementation in an organization, with expectations, experiences, and system satisfaction measured for both ease of use and usefulness, the focal constructs of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We found that an experiences only model in which expectations had no measurable effect best explained the data for ease of use. The results for usefulness indicated a modified version of the experiences only model in which the positive effect of experiences becomes slightly stronger—i.e., more positive—as expectations increase.
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                Bala, H. and Venkatesh, V. “Assimilation of Interorganizational Business Process Standards,” Information Systems Research (18:3), 2007, 340-362.

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                Organizations have not fully realized the benefits of interorganizational relationships (IORs) due to the lack of cross-enterprise process integration capabilities. Recently,interorganizational business process standards (IBPS) enabled by information technology (IT) have been suggested as a solution to help organizations overcome this problem. Drawing on three theoretical perspectives, i.e., the relational view of the firm, institutional theory, and organizational inertia theory, we propose three mechanisms—relational, influence, and inertial—to explain the assimilation of IBPS in organizations. We theorize that these mechanisms will have differential effects on the assimilation of IBPS in dominant and nondominant firms. Using a cross-case analysis based on data from 11 firms in the high-tech industry, we found evidence to support our propositions that relational depth, relationship extendability, and normative pressure were important for dominant firms while relational specificity and influence mechanisms (coercive, mimetic, and normative pressures) were important for nondominant firms. Inertial mechanisms, i.e., ability and willingness to overcome resource and routine rigidities, were important for both dominant and nondominant firms.
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                  Venkatesh, V. and Bala, H. “Adoption of Interorganizational Business Process Standards in Business-to-Business Integration: An Exploratory Study,” Systemes d’Information et Management (12:2), 2007, 53-78.

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                  We conducted an exploratory study to understand the factors that played important role in the adoption of RosettaNet-based interorganizational business process standards (IBPS) in business-to-business integration (B2Bi). We found 3 sets of drivers of IBPS adoption in organizations—i.e., external, internal, and instrumental. External factors include institutional pressures, standards uncertainty, and quality of interorganizational relationships. Internal factors include internal pressures, job change, technology readiness, ICT competence, and organizational culture. Finally, instrumental factors include perceived benefits, process compatibility, and complexity.
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                    Venkatesh, V., Bala, H., Venkatraman, S., and Bates, J. “Enterprise Architecture Maturity: The Story of the Veterans Health Administration,” MIS Quarterly Executive (6:2), 2007, 79-90.

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                    The Veterans Health Administration’s (VHA) health care system was once considered one of the worst in the United States. For many veterans, it was the last resort. In the early 1990s, in fact, its system had deteriorated so much that Congress considered disbanding it. However, since then, it has undergone a dramatic transformation and is now considered one of the best health care systems in the nation and a leader in almost every health care performance metric. We conducted an in-depth investigation of the VHA for about a year to understand its dramatic turnaround. We found that information technology (IT) played a key role. In particular, we found that by increasing the maturity of its enterprise architecture, the VHA achieved a high degree of integration and standardization in its business processes, which helped it transform its operations. Based on our study of the VHA, we postulate six catalysts for successfully evolving enterprise architecture maturity: (1) formulate a strategic vision for enterprise architecture and gain long-term commitment from top management; (2) involve central and local groups; (3) take an evolutionary, rather than a revolutionary, approach; (4) have a strategy for supporting IT systems and business processes; (5) require local accountability for implementing global objectives; and (6) implement an effective performance management program. Once an enterprise architecture is mature, it can be used for strategic advantage.
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