Brown, S.A., Dennis, A.R., and Venkatesh, V. “Predicting Collaboration Technology Use: Integrating Technology Adoption and Collaboration Research,” Journal of MIS (27:2), 2010, 9-53.

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The paper presents a model integrating theories from collaboration research (i.e., social presence theory, channel expansion theory, and the task closure model) with a recent theory from technology adoption research (i.e., unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, abbreviated to UTAUT ) to explain the adoption and use of collaboration technology. We theorize that collaboration technology characteristics, individual and group characteristics, task characteristics, and situational characteristics are predictors of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions in UTAUT . We further theorize that the UTAUT constructs, in concert with gender, age, and experience, predict intention to use a collaboration technology, which in turn predicts use. We conducted two field studies in Finland among (1) 349 short message service (SMS) users and (2) 447 employees who were potential users of a new collaboration technology in an organization. Our model was supported in both studies. The current work contributes to research by developing and testing a technology-specific model of adoption in the collaboration context.
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    Chan, F., Thong, J.Y.L., Venkatesh, V., Brown, S.A., Hu, P.J., and Tam, K.Y. “Modeling Citizen Satisfaction with Mandatory Adoption of an E-Government Technology,” Journal of the AIS (11:10), 2010, 519-549.

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    While technology adoption is a major stream of research in information systems, few studies have examined the antecedents and consequences of mandatory adoption of technologies. To address this gap, we develop and test a model of mandatory citizen adoption of e-government technology. Based on a framework that outlines the key stages associated with the launch of technology products, we identify various external factors as antecedents of four key technology adoption variables from the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), i.e., performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions, which ultimately impact citizen satisfaction. The four stages of technology launch and the salient antecedents in each stage are: (1) market preparation stage – awareness; (2) targeting stage – compatibility and self-efficacy; (3) positioning stage – flexibility and avoidance of personal interaction; and (4) execution stage – trust, convenience, and assistance. We test our model in a two-stage survey of 1,179 Hong Kong citizens, before and after they were issued a mandatory smart card to access e-government services. We find that the various factors tied to the different stages in launching the technology predict key technology adoption variables that, in turn, predict citizen satisfaction with e-government technology. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications for governments implementing technologies whose use by citizens is mandated.
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      Xu, X., Venkatesh, V., Tam, K.Y., and Hong, S. “Model of Migration and Use of Platforms: Role of Hierarchy, Current Generation, and Complementarities in Consumer Settings,” Management Science (56:8), 2010, 1304-1323.

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      We develop and test a model of migration and use of platforms to explain consumers’ reactions to the newest generation of an information and communication technology platform. We draw from information systems and consumer behavior research on adoption and use of technologies, and adapt and incorporate the construct of complementarity from macrolevel research on platform leadership, network effects, and innovation ecosystems. We conceptualize complementarities between the hardware and software platforms, software platform and applications, and applications and services. The complementarities are theorized to influence migration intention, with current generation of the consumer’s platform being a key moderator. We empirically validated our model with data collected using two waves of surveys from 4,412 consumers (2,333 consumers in the second wave) before and after the introduction of the third generation (3G) mobile data services platform in Hong Kong. We explained 60% of the variance in migration intention that in turn was strongly correlated with migration to and use of 3G.
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        Magni, M., Taylor, M.S., and Venkatesh, V. “To Play or Not to Play: A Cross-temporal Investigation Using Hedonic and Instrumental Perspectives to Explain User Intentions to Explore a Technology,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (68:9), 2010, 572-588.

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        The present research extends prior work on the relationship between users and technology by examining users’ intention to explore a technology. Drawing on exploration and individual motivation theories, we developed and tested a model examining the effects of hedonic (i.e., personal innovativeness and cognitive absorption) and instrumental (i.e., performance expectancy and image enhancement) factors on individuals’ intentions to explore a technology over time. We found that both instrumental and hedonic factors affect individuals’ intentions to explore, but their effects change over time such that as time goes by, the effect of personal innovativeness decreases and performance expectancy increases. In addition to our contributions and implications for research on technology acceptance, we present practical implications both for developers and managers, with a view toward helping the development and deployment of technologies that satisfy the evolution of users’ needs over time.
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          Venkatesh, V. and Goyal, S. “Expectation Disconfirmation and Technology Adoption: Polynomial Modeling and Response Surface Analysis,” MIS Quarterly (34:2), 2010, 281-303.

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          Individual-level information systems (IS) adoption research has recently seen the introduction of expectation-disconfirmation theory (EDT) to explain how and why user reactions change over time. Such prior research has produced valuable insights into the phenomenon of technology adoption beyond traditional models, such as the technology acceptance model. First, we identify gaps in EDT research that present potential opportunities for advances—specifically, we discuss methodological and analytical limitations in EDT research in IS and present polynomial modeling and response surface methodology as solutions. Second, we draw from research on cognitive dissonance, realistic job preview, and prospect theory to present a polynomial model of expectation-disconfirmation in IS. Finally, we test our model using data gathered over a period of six months among 1,143 employees being introduced to a new technology. The results confirmed our hypotheses that disconfirmation in general was bad, as evidenced by low behavioral intention to continue using a system for both positive and negative disconfirmation, thus supporting the need for a polynomial model to understand expectation disconfirmation in information systems.
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            Morris, M.G. and Venkatesh, V. “Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction: Understanding the Role of Enterprise Resource Planning System Implementation,” MIS Quarterly (34:1), 2010, 143-161.

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            Little research has examined the impacts of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems implementation on job satisfaction. Based on a 12-month study of 2,794 employees in a telecommunications firm, we found that ERP system implementation moderated the relationships between three job characteristics (skill variety, autonomy, and feedback) and job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the key role that ERP system implementation can have in altering well-established relationships in the context of technology-enabled organizational change situations. This work also extends research on technology diffusion by moving beyond a focus on technology-centric outcomes, such as system use, to understanding broader job outcomes.
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              Rai, A., Venkatesh, V., Bala, H., and Lewis, M. “Transitioning to a Modular Enterprise Architecture: Drivers, Constraints, and Actions,” MIS Quarterly Executive (9:2), 2010, 83-94.

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              Best practice suggests that a modular enterprise architecture, where interfaces between and among business processes and services are standardized, is a key IT capability for firms to achieve profitable growth. But few firms have successfully designed, implemented, and maintained such an architecture. This article presents findings on the drivers, constraints, and actions taken by two companies that transitioned to a modular enterprise architecture in response to competitive pressures from their business partners or customers. One company implemented an industry standard and the other developed custom partner interface processes (PIPs) to achieve business modularity. The lessons from these two case studies show how companies can smoothly transition to a modular enterprise architecture.
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                Venkatesh, V. and Zhang, X. “Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology: U.S. Vs. China,” Journal of Global Information Technology Management (13:1), 2010, 5-27.

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                This paper seeks to enrich our understanding of research on technology adoption by examining a potential boundary condition, related to culture, of the fairly recently developed model of technology adoption and use—i.e., unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). Based on the cultural differences between the U.S. and China, we outline the similarities and dissimilarities between the hypotheses specified in the original UTAUT, which was validated in the U.S., and how the relationships will play in the context of employees in China. We conducted an empirical study in a single organization that operated both in the U.S. and China and collected longitudinal data from a total of over 300 employees in one business unit in each of the two countries. Our study confirmed our hypotheses that social influence will be more uniformly important across all employees, without contingencies related to gender, age and volunatariness that were found to be the case in the U.S. As we theorized, other UTAUT hypotheses held both in the U.S. and China. This work contributes by examining culture as a boundary condition and identifies the bounds of generalizability of UTAUT.
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                  Maruping, L.M., Zhang, X., and Venkatesh, V. “Role of Collective Ownership and Coding Standards in Coordinating Expertise in Software Project Teams,” European Journal of Information Systems (18:4), 2009, 355-371.

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                  Software development is a complex undertaking that continues to present software project teams with numerous challenges. Software project teams are adopting extreme programming (XP) practices in order to overcome the challenges of software development in an increasingly dynamic environment. The ability to coordinate developer efforts is critical in such conditions. Expertise coordination has been identified as an important emergent process through which software project teams manage non-routine challenges in software development. However, the extent to which XP enables software project teams to coordinate expertise is unknown. Drawing on the agile development and expertise coordination literatures, we examine the role of collective ownership and coding standards as processes and practices that govern coordination in software project teams. We examine the relationship between collective ownership, coding standards, expertise coordination, and software project technical quality in a field study of 56 software project teams comprising 509 programmers. We found that collective ownership and coding standards play a role in improving software project technical quality. We also found that collective ownership and coding standards moderated the relationship between expertise coordination and software project technical quality, with collective ownership attenuating the relationship and coding standards strengthening the relationship. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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                    Maruping, L.M., Venkatesh, V., and Agarwal, R. “A Control Theory Perspective on Agile Methodology Use and Changing User Requirements,” Information Systems Research (20:3), 2009, 377-399.

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                    In this paper, we draw on control theory to understand the conditions under which the use of agile practices is most effective in improving software project quality. Although agile development methodologies offer the potential of improving software development outcomes, limited research has examined how project managers can structure the software development environment to maximize the benefits of agile methodology use during a project. As a result, project managers have little guidance on how to manage teams who are using agile methodologies. Arguing that the most effective control modes are those that provide teams with autonomy in determining the methods for achieving project objectives, we propose hypotheses related to the interaction between control modes, agile methodology use, and requirements change. We test the model in a field study of 862 software developers in 110 teams. The model explains substantial variance in four objective measures of project quality—bug severity, component complexity, coordinative complexity, and dynamic complexity. Results largely support our hypotheses, highlighting the interplay between project control, agile methodology use, and requirements change. The findings contribute to extant literature by integrating control theory into the growing literature on agile methodology use and by identifying specific contingencies affecting the efficacy of different control modes. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our results.
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