Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y.L., Chan, F.K.Y., and Hu, P.J.H. “Managing Citizens’ Uncertainty in E-Government Services: The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Transparency and Trust,” Information Systems Research (27:1), 2016, 87-111.

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This paper investigates how citizens’ uncertainty in e-government services can be managed. First, we draw from uncertainty reduction theory, and propose that transparency and trust are two key means of reducing citizens’ uncertainty in e-government services. Second, we identify two key sets of relevant drivers of e-government service use: (1) information quality characteristics—i.e., accuracy and completeness; and (2) channel characteristics—i.e., convenience and personalization. We propose that the means of uncertainty reduction, information quality characteristics, and channel characteristics are interrelated factors that jointly influence citizens’ intentions to use e-government. We tested our model with 4,430 Hong Kong citizens’ reactions to two e-government services: government Web sites and online appointment booking. Our results show that the information quality and channel characteristics predict citizens’ intentions to use e-government. Further, transparency and trust mediate as well as moderate the effects of information quality and channel characteristics on intentions. A follow-up survey found that citizens’ intentions predict use and ultimately, citizens’ satisfaction.
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    Bala, H. and Venkatesh, V. “Adaptation to Information Technology: A Holistic Nomological Network from Implementation to Job Outcomes,” Management Science (62:1), 2016, 156-179.

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    Information technology (IT) implementation is a major organizational change event that substantially disrupts employees’ work environment. We develop a model of technology adaptation behaviors that employees perform to cope with a new IT that causes such disruptions. Our model posits technology adaptation behaviors as a key linking mechanism between IT implementation and employee job outcomes, thus offering a holistic nomological network of technology adaptation behaviors. Two field studies conducted over a period of six months, with four waves of data collection each, in two organizations (N = 211 and 181) implementing two different ITs supported the model. We found that employees engaged in four different technology adaptation behaviors, i.e., exploration-to-innovate, exploitation, exploration-to-revert, and avoidance, based on whether they appraised an IT as an opportunity or a threat and whether they had perceptions of control over an IT. Employees’ experiential engagements, i.e., user participation and training effectiveness, and psychological engagements, i.e., user involvement and management support, during the implementation jointly determined their appraisal of an IT. Finally, we found that technology adaptation behaviors influenced changes in two key job outcomes, i.e., job performance and job satisfaction.
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      Venkatesh, V., Thong, J.Y.L., and Xu, X. “Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology: A Synthesis and the Road Ahead,” Journal of the AIS (17:5), 2016, 328-376.

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      The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) is a decade old and has been used extensively in information systems (IS) and other fields as evidenced by the large number of citations to the original article introducing the theory. The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the IS literature on UTAUT, perform a theoretical analysis of UTAUT and its extensions, and chart an agenda for research going forward. Based on Weber’s (2012) framework of theory evaluation, we examined UTAUT and its extensions along two sets of quality dimensions—namely, the parts of the theory and the theory as a whole. While our review identifies many merits to UTAUT, we also found that its achievements have hampered further theoretical development in research into technology acceptance and use. To chart an agenda for research that will enable significant future work, we analyze the theoretical contributions of UTAUT using Whetten’s (2009) notion of cross-context theorizing. Our analysis reveals a number of limitations that lead us to propose a multi-level framework that can serve as the theoretical foundation for future research. Specifically, this framework integrates the notion of research context and cross-context theorizing with the theory evaluation framework to (1) synthesize the existing UTAUT extensions across both the dimensions and the levels of the research context; and (2) highlight promising research directions. We conclude with recommendations for future UTAUT-related research using the proposed framework.
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        Hoehle, H., Aljafari, R., and Venkatesh, V. “Leveraging Microsoft’s Mobile Usability Guidelines: Conceptualizing and Developing Scales for Mobile Application Usability,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (89:5), 2016, 35-53.

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        This research conceptualizes mobile application usability and develops and validates an instrument to measure the same. Mobile application usability has attracted widespread attention in the field of human–computer interaction because well-designed applications can enhance user experiences. To conceptualize mobile application usability, we analyzed Microsoft’s mobile usability guidelines and defined 10 constructs representing mobile application usability. Next, we conducted a pilot study followed by a quantitative assessment of the content validity of the scales. We then sequentially applied exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to two samples (n=404; n=501) consisting of German consumers using mobile social media applications on their smartphones. To evaluate the confirmatory factor model, we followed a step-by-step process assessing unidimensionality, discriminant validity and reliability. To assess the nomological validity of our instrument, we examined the impact of mobile application usability on two outcomes: continued intention to use and brand loyalty. The results confirmed that mobile application usability was a good predictor of both outcomes. The constructs and scales associated with mobile application usability validated in this paper can be used to guide future research in human–computer interaction and aid in the effective design of mobile applications.
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          Aloysius, J.A., Hoehle, H., and Venkatesh, V. “Exploiting Big Data for Customer and Retailer Benefits: A Study of Emerging Mobile Checkout Scenarios,” International Journal of Operations and Production Management (36:4), 2016, 467-486.

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          Mobile checkout in the retail store has the promise to be a rich source of big data. It is also a means to increase the rate at which big data flows into an organization as well as the potential to integrate product recommendations and promotions in real time. However, despite efforts by retailers to implement this retail innovation, adoption by customers has been slow. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Based on interviews and focus groups with leading retailers, technology providers, and service providers, the authors identified several emerging in-store mobile scenarios; and based on customer focus groups, the authors identified potential drivers and inhibitors of use. A first departure from the traditional customer checkout process flow is that a mobile checkout involves two processes: scanning and payment, and that checkout scenarios with respect to each of these processes varied across two dimensions: first, location – whether they were fixed by location or mobile; and second, autonomy – whether they were assisted by store employees or unassisted. The authors found no evidence that individuals found mobile scanning to be either enjoyable or to have utilitarian benefit. The authors also did not find greater privacy concerns with mobile payments scenarios. The authors did, however, in the post hoc analysis find that mobile unassisted scanning was preferred to mobile assisted scanning. The authors also found that mobile unassisted scanning with fixed unassisted checkout was a preferred service mode, while there was evidence that mobile assisted scanning with mobile assisted payment was the least preferred checkout mode. Finally, the authors found that individual differences including computer self-efficacy, personal innovativeness, and technology anxiety were strong predictors of adoption of mobile scanning and payment scenarios. The work helps the authors understand the emerging mobile checkout scenarios in the retail environment and customer reactions to these scenarios.
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            Brown, S.A., Venkatesh, V., and Hoehle, H. “Technology Adoption Decisions in the Household: A Seven-model Comparison,” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (66:9), 2015, 1933-1949.

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            We identified 7 theoretical models that have been used to explain technology adoption and use. We then examined the boundary conditions of these models of technology adoption when applied to the household context using longitudinal empirical data from households regarding their purchase and use decisions related to household technologies. We conducted 2 studies and collected 1,247 responses from U.S. households for the first study and 2,064 responses from U.S. households for the second study. Those households that had adopted household technologies were surveyed regarding their use behavior. Potential adopters (i.e., those who had currently not adopted) were surveyed regarding their purchase intentions. This allowed us to identify the most influential factors affecting a household’s decision to adopt and use technologies. The results show that the model of adoption of technology in the household provided the richest explanation and explained best why households purchase and use technologies.
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              Maruping, L.M., Venkatesh, V., Thatcher, S., and Patel, P. “Folding Under Pressure or Rising to the Occasion? Perceived Time Pressure and the Moderating Role of Team Temporal Leadership,” Academy of Management Journal (58:5), 2015, 1313-1333.

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              Team temporal leadership orients teams toward managing the time-related aspects of their work. We examined how perceived time pressure affects team processes and subsequent performance under weak versus strong team temporal leadership. Results of a field study of 111 project teams show that the mediated relationship between perceived time pressure and team performance is non-linear. Moreover, this non-linear mediated relationship is moderated by team temporal leadership such that under strong team temporal leadership, the indirect effect of perceived time pressure on team performance is mostly positive; and under conditions of weak team temporal leadership, the indirect effect is positive at low levels of perceived time pressure and negative at intermediate to high levels. Implications for current and future time pressure research are discussed.
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                Hoehle, H. and Venkatesh, V. “Mobile Application Usability: Conceptualization and Instrument Development,” MIS Quarterly (39:2), 2015, 435-472.

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                This paper presents a mobile application usability conceptualization and survey instrument following the 10-step procedure recommended by MacKenzie et al. (2011). Specifically, we adapted Apple’s user experience guidelines to develop our conceptualization of mobile application usability that we then developed into 19 first-order constructs that formed 6 second-order constructs. To achieve our objective, we collected 4 datasets: content validity (n=318), pre-test (n=440), validation (n=408), and cross-validation (n=412). The nomological validity of this instrument was established by examining its impact on two outcomes: continued intention to use and mobile application loyalty. We found that the constructs that represented our mobile application usability conceptualization were good predictors of both outcomes and compared favorably to an existing instrument based on Microsoft’s usability guidelines. In addition to being an exemplar of the recent procedure of MacKenzie et al. to validate an instrument, this work provides a rich conceptualization of and instrument for mobile application usability that can serve as a springboard for future work to understand the impacts of mobile application usability and can be used as a guide to design effective mobile applications.
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                  Hoehle, H., Zhang, X., and Venkatesh, V. “An Espoused Cultural Perspective to Understand Continued Intention to Use Mobile Applications: A Four-country Study of Mobile Social Media Application Usability,” European Journal of Information Systems (24:3), 2015, 337-359.

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                  As most mobile applications are tailored for worldwide consumption, it is a significant challenge to develop applications that satisfy individuals with various cultural backgrounds. To address this issue, we drew on a recently developed conceptualization and associated instrument of mobile application usability to develop a model examining the impact of mobile social media application usability on continued intention to use. Drawing on Hofstede’s five cultural values, we incorporated espoused cultural values of masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation into our model as moderators. To test the model, we collected data from 1,844 consumers in four countries—U.S, Germany, China, and India—who use mobile social media applications on their smartphones. The results provided support for the role of espoused national cultural values in moderating the impact of mobile social media application usability on continued intention to use and the model, with espoused cultural values explaining significantly more variance in continued intention to use (i.e., 38%) than the main effects only model (i.e., 19%). Interestingly, our results demonstrated that culture at the national level did not play a significant role in affecting the relationship between usability constructs and continued intention to use, thus underscoring the importance of espoused culture.
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                    Xu, X., Thong, J.Y.L., and Venkatesh, V. “Effects of ICT Service Innovation and Complementary Strategies on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty in a Consumer Technology Market,” Information Systems Research (25:4), 2014, 710-729.

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                    This paper examines the effects of information and communication technology (ICT) service innovation and its complementary strategies on brand equity and customer loyalty toward ICT service providers. We draw from research on brand equity and customer loyalty, ICT innovation management, and strategy complementarity to propose a model that includes new constructs representing ICT service innovation, i.e., service leadership, and its two complementary strategies, i.e., customization-personalization control and technology leadership, and how their interactions influence customer loyalty through customer-based brand equity. We test our model using data from an online survey of 1,210 customers of mobile data services. The results show that service leadership and customization-personalization control have significant direct impacts on ICT service providers’ brand equity. Moreover, when either the level of technology leadership or the level of customization-personalization control is high, the impact of service leadership on brand equity is enhanced. In turn, brand equity has significant impacts on consumers’ affective loyalty and conative loyalty, but not on cognitive loyalty. Our study contributes to the literature on service management and service science, and in particular to the management of ICT service innovation in a consumer technology market.
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