Venkatraman, S., Cheung, C.M.K, Lee, Z.W.Y., Davis, F.D., and Venkatesh, V. “The ‘Darth’ Side of Technology Use: An Inductively Derived Typology of Cyberdeviance,” Journal of Management Information Systems (35:4), 2018, 1060-1091.

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Cyberdeviance, intentional use of information technology (IT) in the workplace that is contrary to the explicit and implicit norms of the organization and that threatens the well-being of the organization and/or its members, is an important research stream that has gained attention in academia and industry. Prior studies have treated different forms of cyberdeviance as different phenomena, resulting in a lack of a collective underlying conceptualization of cyberdeviance. This work inductively and empirically derives a typology of cyberdeviance with 439 respon-dents across three phases. Our results suggest that cyberdeviance varies along 3 dimensions: cyberdeviant behaviors that are minor versus serious; cyberdeviant behaviors that target individuals versus organizations; and cyberdeviant behaviors that require low versus high technical skill. We thus provide a comprehensive framework that fosters a logical linkage of various research programs related to cyberdeviance to guide future research investigation. The typology will help man-agers to distinguish different cyberdeviant behaviors and implement suitable inter-ventions depending on the behavior.
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    Thongpapanl, N., Ashraf, A.R., Lapa, L., and Venkatesh, V. “Differential Effects of Consumers’ Regulatory Fit on Trust, Perceived Value, and M-Commerce Use among Developing and Developed Countries,” Journal of International Marketing (26:3), 2018, 22-44.

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    Despite promising growth, mobile commerce (m-commerce) still represents only a small proportion of the world’s total e-commerce market. The research behind this article moves away from the predominantly single-country (typically developed) and utilitarian-focused market scope of past research to examine and provide a more nuanced understanding of customers’ motivations, whether utilitarian or hedonic, for using m-commerce across six countries. The six-country context, with data collected from 1,183 m-commerce users, offers a unique opportunity to advance mobile-retailing literature by comparing customers’ value perceptions, trust, and m-commerce use across disparate national markets. By treating motivations as conditions activated by individuals’ chronic regulatory orientations, our results show that hedonic motivation plays a more significant role in influencing customers’ value perceptions and trust for those who are promotion oriented (Australia and the United States), whereas utilitarian motivation plays a more important role for those who are prevention oriented (Bangladesh and Vietnam). Finally, both hedonic and utilitarian motivations play an important role in influencing customers’ value perceptions and trust for those who are moderately promotion and prevention oriented (India and Pakistan). These results offer insights to mobile retailers operating internationally in their decisions to standardize or adapt the mobile-shopping environment to deliver the most valuable, trustworthy, and engaging solutions to customers.
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      Zhang, X. and Venkatesh, V. “From Design Principles to Impacts: A Theoretical Framework and Research Agenda,” AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (10:2), 2018, 105-128.    

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      In this paper, we integrate three streams of research in information systems (i.e., IS success, technology adoption, and human-centered design principles) to extend our understanding of technology use. We present a theoretical framework that incorporates the core ideas from these three streams of research. We leverage the proposed framework to present propositions that could guide future work. Specifically, the propositions we develop relate system-design principles to use and net benefits (i.e., job performance and job satisfaction) and rich use to job performance. We further suggest several broad potential future research directions.
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        Hoehle, H., Aloysius, J.A., Chan, F.K.Y., and Venkatesh, V. “Customers’ Tolerance for Validation in Omnichannel Retail Stores: Enabling Logistics and Supply Chain Analytics,” The International Journal of Logistics Management (29:2), 2018, 704-722.    

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        Mobile technologies are increasingly used as a data source to enable big data analytics that enable inventory control and logistics planning for omnichannel businesses. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the use of mobile technologies to facilitate customers’ shopping in physical retail stores and associated implementation challenges. First, the authors introduce three emerging mobile shopping checkout processes in the retail store. Second, the authors suggest that new validation procedures (i.e. exit inspections) necessary for implementation of mobile-technology-enabled checkout processes may disrupt traditional retail service processes. The authors propose a construct labeled “tolerance for validation” defined as customer reactions to checkout procedures. The authors define and discuss five dimensions – tolerance for: unfair process; changes in validation process; inconvenience; mistrust; and privacy intrusion. The authors develop a measurement scale for the proposed construct and conduct a study among 239 customers. The results show that customers have higher tolerance for validation under scenarios in which mobile technologies are used in the checkout processes, as compared to the traditional self-service scenario in which no mobile technology is used. In particular, the customers do not show a clear preference for specific mobile shopping scenarios. These findings contribute to our understanding of a challenge that omnichannel businesses may face as they leverage data from digital technologies to enhance collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment processes. The proposed construct and measurement scales can be used in future work on omnichannel retailing.
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          Venkatesh, V., Rai, A., and Maruping, L.M“Information Systems Projects and Individual Developer Outcomes: Role of Project Managers and Process Control,” Information Systems Research (29:1), 2018, 127-148.

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          We integrate control theory and the information systems (IS) project management literature using a multilevel lens to theorize the cross-level effects of technical IS project risk on individual developer outcomes—performance and psychological stress—and the mechanisms by which IS project managers’ project-related knowledge attenuates this relationship. We argue that IS project managers with project-related knowledge mitigate technical IS project risk by facilitating the enactment of internal and external process controls in their IS projects. Our empirical study involves data collected from 1,230 individual developers embedded in 130 IS project teams that are managed by 20 IS project managers. Our results provide strong support for the three-level model and its set of (a) cross-level main effects of technical IS project risk on individual developer outcomes, (b) cross-level main effects of IS project manager project-related knowledge on enacted internal and external process controls, and (c) cross-level moderation of the relationship between technical IS project risk and individual developer outcomes by IS project manager project-related knowledge through internal and external process controls. Our study provides insights on how IS project management, IS project process controls, and technical IS project risk must be managed as a system of multilevel dependencies to achieve the desired developer outcomes.
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            Aloysius, J.A., Hoehle, H., Goodarzi, S., and Venkatesh, V. “Big Data Initiatives in Retail Environments: Linking Service Process Perceptions to Shopping Outcomes,” Annals of Operations Research (270:1-2), 2018, 25-51.

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            Given the enormous amount of data created through customers’ transactions in retail stores, it comes as no surprise that retailers are actively seeking initiatives to leverage big data and offer their customers superior services that provide mutual, previously unattainable benefits. Nonetheless, fulfilment of such a strategic aim requires customers to adopt and embrace emerging technology-driven services. Exploring customers’ perceptions of such big data initiatives in retail environments, we develop a model examining the effects of technology enablers and privacy concerns on critical shopping outcomes including repatronage intentions, store image, and intention to use medium in the context of recently identified service configurations. We conduct an exploratory study to understand customers’ reactions toward emerging shopping scenarios and to enhance our survey instrument and then conduct an online survey (n = 442) to test our model. We found that customers’ usefulness perceptions of emerging services positively affected their intentions to use medium, and that their privacy concerns about the amounts of personal information, being collected through emerging services, negatively affected their repatronage intentions and store image. We discuss the implications of our work for research and practice.
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              Venkatesh, V., Hoehle, H., and Aljafari, R. “A Usability Study of the Obamacare Website: Evaluation and Recommendations,” Government Information Quarterly (34:2), 2017, 199-210.  

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              We conducted a usability study of the healthcare.gov website, popularly known as the Obamacare website, using the guidelines available on usability.gov, which were published by the Department of Health and Human Services. The study was conducted among 374 citizens.We found that the interface design,which we conceptualized as 16 dimensions,was rated rather low. Specifically, five dimensions of usability emerged as key to the prediction of overall usability of the website: hardware and software, home page, screen, scrolling and paging, and user experience. We also found that citizen satisfaction and intention to use the website were rated poorly. Based on a break down by gender, age and voting behavior (for Obama or not), we found several interesting patterns of differences. Ultimately, even if the infrastructure issues that have received a bulk of the media attention are miraculously resolved, our findings suggest that the site will be found wanting. The article offers specific illustrative examples of usability problems with the website and specific recommendations drawn from usability.gov. In addition to the practical implications for Obamacare, the article offers significant implications for researchers who seek to evaluate the usability of websites in general and healthcare websites in particular.
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                Windeler, J., Maruping, L.M., and Venkatesh, V. “Technical Systems Development Risk Factors: The Role of Empowering Leadership in Lowering Developers’ Stress,” Information Systems Research (28:4), 2017, 775-796.

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                The success of information systems development (ISD) projects depends on the developers who deliver them. However, developers face many challenges in bringing an ISD project to successful completion. These projects are often large, highly complex, with volatile targets, creating a stressful environment for developers. Although prior literature has considered how technical ISD risk factors, such as project size, complexity and target volatility, impact team- and project-level outcomes, their impact on developers has received limited attention. This gap in the literature is problematic for two reasons: (1) the interplay between individuals and project characteristics are unaccounted for, resulting in an incomplete picture of ISD; and (2) individual-level stress has been shown to reduce team performance. In this research, we examine the role of empowering leadership in reducing developer stress in ISD. We develop a multilevel model of the influence of empowering leadership on the relationship between technical ISD risk factors and developers’ role perceptions and explore the consequences for developers’ stress. The model was tested in a field study of 350 developers in 73 ISD teams from a large U.S.-based firm. Results showed that empowering leadership ameliorated the negative effects of project size and target volatility on role ambiguity, as well as the negative effects of project size, complexity, and target volatility on role conflict and stress. We also found that empowering leadership reduced role ambiguity, role conflict, and stress directly, and that role ambiguity and role conflict increased stress. Project size, complexity, and target volatility were found to increase empowering leadership behaviors. We conclude that empowering leadership can be an effective means of helping developers cope with technical ISD risk factors and discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice.
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                  Venkatesh, V., Shaw, J.D., Sykes, T.A., Wamba, F.S., and Macharia, M. “Networks, Technology, and Entrepreneurship: A Field Quasi-Experiment among Women in Rural India,” Academy of Management Journal (60:5), 2017, 1709-1740. [Recognized as the best paper published in AMJ in 2017]

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                  We address a grand economic challenge faced by women in rural India. We hypothesized about the interplay of women’s social networks (ties to family, ties to community, and ties to men in power), information and communication technology (ICT) use, and time in relating to the initiation and success of women’s entrepreneurial ventures. The results from a 7-year field quasi experiment in 20 rural villages in India provided substantial support for the model. Ties to family and community positively, and ties to men in power negatively, related to ICT use, entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurial profit. The ICT intervention also had a strong effect on entrepreneurship, with 160 new businesses in the 10 intervention villages compared to 40 new businesses in the control villages. The results also provide evidence of the dynamic interplay of social networks and ICT use. For ties to family and community, an amplification effect was found such that the highest levels of entrepreneurial activity and success were observed among women with high centrality and ICT use, effects that were stronger over time. For ties to men in power, ICT use was associated with increased entrepreneurial activity only when ties to men in power were low, but these interactive temporary temporal patterns did not emerge for profit. We address the implications of our research for the grand challenges of empowering women in less developed countries.
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                    Zhang, X. and Venkatesh, V. “A Nomological Network of Knowledge Management System Use: Antecedents and Consequences,” MIS Quarterly (41:4), 2017, 1275-1306.    

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                    A key objective of knowledge management system (KMS) implementations is to facilitate job outcomes, such as job performance and job satisfaction. Prior KMS research indicates many KMS implementations have failed to achieve their intended job outcomes, such as job performance and job satisfaction, and one important reason for failure could be that employees do not know how to use a KMS to enhance job outcomes. Given that research on this topic is scant and the findings inconsistent, this paper sought to develop a better understanding of the topic. Specifically, we examine how employees can use a small number of KMS features to get a majority of their job tasks done. Limited research has used a systematic approach to identify these features, examined drivers of using these features, and impacts of the use of such features on job outcomes. Based on a literature review, we first identified several KMS features. Then, these features were examined using a qualitative study among 35 employees in a large organization in the finance industry to identify the key KMS features that could contribute positively to job outcomes. We then developed a nomological network of KMS feature use. Leveraging social network theory, we present peer support ties in general, and help-seeking ties and help-providing ties in particular, as key drivers of the use of these features and job outcomes. We also present various competing hypotheses for the effects from peer support to KMS feature use, KMS feature use to job outcomes, and peer support to job outcomes. We conducted a quantitative study (n = 1,441) in the same organization (noted above) to validate our model. Results indicated that our model was largely supported.
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