Venkatesh, V., Ramesh, V., and Massey, A. “Understanding Usability in Mobile Commerce,” Communications of the ACM (46:12), 2003, 53-56.

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This article discusses various issues related to the significance of usability and the user interface in mobile commerce (m-commerce). The article makes specific reference to a study conducted in this regard. The user interface represents an environment wherein online users conduct communication, information search, and transactions. It is highlighted that satisfying the sensory and functional needs of users via interfaces is a vital prerequisite for the success of electronic commerce and m-commerce sites. It is stated that as m-commerce includes a set of applications and services people can access from their Web-enabled mobile devices, an in-depth understanding of important aspects of usability is required in this regard.
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    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, G.B, and Davis, F.D. “User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View,” MIS Quarterly (27:3), 2003, 425-478. [2nd most cited of all papers ever published in MIS Quarterly]

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    Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified theory that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, a motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, a model of PC utilization, innovation diffusion theory, and social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a six-month period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified theory, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (69 percent adjusted R2). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar results (70 percent adjusted R2). UTAUT thus provides a useful tool for managers needing to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and helps them understand the drivers of acceptance in order to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing, etc.) targeted at populations of users that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems. The paper also makes several recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the dynamic influences studied here, refining measurement of the core constructs used in UTAUT, and understanding the organizational outcomes associated with new technology use.
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      Brown, S.A. and Venkatesh, V. “Bringing Non-Adopters Along: The Challenge Facing the PC Industry,” Communications of the ACM (46:3), 2003, 76-80.

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        Venkatesh, V. and Johnson, P. “Telecommuting Technology Implementations: A Within- and Between-Subjects Longitudinal Field Study,” Personnel Psychology (55:3), 2002, 661-687. [Nominated for the William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award for the best publication in a refereed article in the field of industrial and organizational psychology]

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        This research examines the impact of technology design on the acceptance and long-term use of telecommuting systems. Specifically, we compare employee acceptance and sustained use of a traditional system designed based on the common “desktop metaphor,” with a virtual-reality system designed to enhance social richness and telepresence. This 1-year study incorporated a within- and between-subjects examination of 527 employees across 3 locations of a large organization. Results showed much higher telecommuter acceptance and use of the virtual-reality system. Strong support emerged for the hypotheses that higher social richness and higher telepresence leads to higher telecommuter motivation and higher sustained use of the system.
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          Speier, C. and Venkatesh, V. “The Hidden Minefields in the Adoption of Sales Force Automation Technologies,” Journal of Marketing (66:3), 2002, 98-111.

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          Sales force automation technologies are increasingly used to support customer relationship management strategies; however, commentary in the practitioner press suggests high failure rates. The authors use identity theory as a lens to better understand salesperson perceptions associated with technology rejection. They collected survey data from 454 salespeople across two firms that had implemented sales force automation tools. The results indicate that immediately after training, salespeople had positive perceptions of the technology. However, six months after implementation, the technology had been widely rejected, and salesperson absenteeism and voluntary turnover had significantly increased. There were also significant decreases in perceptions of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, person—organization fit, and person—job fit across both firms. Finally, salespeople with stronger professional commitment indicated more negative job-related perceptions as experience with the technology increased.
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            Agarwal, R. and Venkatesh, V. “Assessing a Firm’s Web Presence: A Heuristic Evaluation Procedure for the Measurement of Usability,” Information Systems Research (13:2), 2002, 168-186.

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            Web site usability is a critical metric for assessing the quality of a firm’s Web presence. A measure of usability must not only provide a global rating for a specific Web site, ideally it should also illuminate specific strengths and weaknesses associated with site design. In this paper, we describe a heuristic evaluation procedure for examining the usability of Web sites. The procedure utilizes a comprehensive set of usability guidelines developed by Microsoft. We present the categories and subcategories comprising these guidelines, and discuss the development of an instrument that operationalizes the measurement of usability. The proposed instrument was tested in a heuristic evaluation study where 1,475 users rated multiple Web sites from four different industry sectors: airlines, online bookstores, automobile manufacturers, and car rental agencies. To enhance the external validity of the study, users were asked to assume the role of a consumer or an investor when assessing usability. Empirical results suggest that the evaluation procedure, the instrument, as well as the usability metric exhibit useful properties. Implications of the .ndings for researchers, for Web site designers, and for heuristic evaluation methods in usability testing are offered.
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              Venkatesh, V., Speier, C., and Morris, M.G. “User Acceptance Enablers in Individual Decision-Making about Technology: Toward an Integrated Model,” Decision Sciences (33:2), 2002, 297-316.

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              Building on recent unique, yet potentially complementary, approaches to understanding the formation of user perceptions about technology (Venkatesh, 1999; Venkatesh & Speier, 1999), the present work reanalyzes the data from both studies to develop an integrated model of technology acceptance. The integrated model specifically examines the influence of pre-training and training environment interventions (termed user acceptance enablers) to understand how user perceptions are formed prior to system implementation. The model is then further extended and tested using longitudinal data in a field setting. The results indicate that the integrated model emerged as a better predictor of user behavior when compared to the existing models.
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                Carswell, A.D. and Venkatesh, V. “Learner Outcomes in an Asynchronous Distance Education Environment,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (56:5), 2002, 475-494.

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                This research investigated student outcomes in a web-based distance learning environment characterized by asynchronous electronic communications between student and teacher. We employed two dominant theories–the theory of planned behavior and innovation diffusion theory–to study student reactions to web-based distance education. We hypothesized that student perceptions of the technology are positively related to learning outcomes and intentions to further use the technology, and are negatively related to using alternative, synchronous media in the learning experience. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 540 students via a web-based survey. Partial support was found for the hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications for human–computer interaction, distance education and user acceptance are discussed.
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                  Venkatesh, V. and Brown, S.A. “A Longitudinal Investigation of Personal Computers in Homes: Adoption Determinants and Emerging Challenges,” MIS Quarterly (25:1), 2001, 71-102.

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                  While technology adoption in the workplace has been studied extensively, drivers of adoption in homes have been largely overlooked. This paper presents the results of a nation-wide, two-wave, longitudinal investigation of the factors driving personal computer (PC) adoption in American homes. The findings revealed that the decisions driving adoption and non-adoption were significantly different. Adopters were driven by utilitarian outcomes, hedonic outcomes (i.e., fun), and social outcomes (i.e., status) from adoption. Non-adopters, on the other hand, were influenced primarily by rapid changes in technology and the consequent fear of obsolescence. A second wave of data collection conducted six months after the initial survey indicated an asymmetrical relationship between intent and behavior, with those who did not intent to adopt a PC following more closely with their intent than those who intended to adopt one. We present important implications for research on adoption of technologies in homes and the workplace, and also discuss challenges facing the PC industry.
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                    Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F.D. “A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies,” Management Science (46:2), 2000, 186-204. [3rd most cited of all papers ever published in Management Science]

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                    The present research develops and tests a theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that explains perceived usefulness and usage intentions in terms of social influence and cognitive instrumental processes. The extended model, referred to as TAM2, was tested using longitudinal data collected regarding four different systems at four organizations (N = 156), two involving voluntary usage and two involving mandatory usage. Model constructs were measured at three points in time at each organization: preimplementation, one month postimplementation, and three months postimplementation. The extended model was strongly supported for all four organizations at all three points of measurement, accounting for 40%-60% of the variance in usefulness perceptions and 34%-52% of the variance in usage intentions. Both social influence processes (subjective norm, voluntariness, and image) and cognitive instrumental processes (job relevance, output quality, result demonstrability, and perceived ease of use) significantly influenced user acceptance. These findings advance theory and contribute to the foundation for future research aimed at improving our understanding of user adoption behavior.
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