Haag, S., Eckhardt, A., and Venkatesh, V. “Deviant Affordances: When Tensions, Deadlocks and Noncompliance Generate Performance,” MIS Quarterly, 2023, forthcoming. https://doi.org/10.25300/misq/2022/14340

View Abstract
Novel information technologies (ITs), such as mobile devices or third-party cloud services, offer users an increasing variety of action possibilities, i.e., affordances. Organizational IT policies, however, often specify their actualization, i.e., turning those affordances into action, as undesired. Organizations face the challenge that their employees, to reach their goals, still frequently take advantage of those affordances by using those very ITs and thereby deviate from the IT policies. Although prior work has extensively studied how goal-oriented users actualize affordances that are associated with outcomes that support organizational goals, little attention has been paid to the structures, mechanisms, and conditions underlying affordances that deviate from organizational IT policies. We conceptualize those affordances as deviant affordances. Leveraging the orders of change framework and using a multimethod research design integrating interview and experimental studies, we identify three key mechanisms underlying deviant affordances—i.e., tension, deadlock, and actualization mechanisms—that can link together to produce a deviant outcome supporting the individual goal and an organizational goal. Our work explains the importance of users’ perceived deadlock in stimulating the generation of deviant outcomes that support the organizational goals through improving task, contextual, and innovative job performance.
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    Venkatesh, V., Speier-Pero, C., and Schuetz, S.W. “Why Do People Shop Online? A Comprehensive Framework of Consumers’ Online Shopping Intentions and Behaviors,” Information Technology & People, 2022, forthcoming. https://doi.org/10.1108/itp-12-2020-0867

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    Purpose – Consumer adoption of online shopping continues to increase each year. At the same time, online retailers face intense competition and few are profitable. This suggests that businesses and researchers still have much to learn regarding key antecedents of online shopping adoption and success. Based on extensive past research that has focused on the importance of various online shopping antecedents, this work seeks to provide an integrative, comprehensive nomological network. Design/methodology/approach – The authors employ a mixed-methods approach to develop a comprehensive model of consumers online shopping behavior. To that end, in addition to a literature review, qualitative data are collected to identify a broad array of possible antecedents. Then, using a longitudinal survey, the model of consumer shopping intentions and behaviors is validated among 9,992
    consumers. Findings – The authors identified antecedents to online shopping related to culture, demographics, economics, technology and personal psychology. Our quantitative analysis showed that the main drivers of online shopping were congruence, impulse buying behavior, value consciousness, risk, local shopping, shopping enjoyment, and browsing enjoyment. Originality/value – The validated model provides a rich explanation of the phenomenon of online shopping that integrates and extends prior work by incorporating new antecedents.
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      Venkatesh, V. and Goyal, S. “Challenging the Linearity Assumption: Impact of an Enterprise System Implementation on Job Outcomes,” Journal of Management Information Systems (39:1), 2022, 6-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2021.2023405

      View Abstract
      Organizations usually have difficulty adjusting to technology-enabled changes. Recent research has examined the interaction between technology and the key job outcomes of employees. But this research stream has done so using a linear lens even though this interplay has been recognized to be dynamic and complex. We challenge here this linearity assumption. We theorized that enterprise system (ES) use influences post-implementation job scope, and the change from pre- to post-implementation job scope perceptions will have a complex effect on job outcomes that are best captured by a polynomial model. Drawing on the anchoring-and-adjustment perspective in decision-making research, our polynomial model highlights the dynamic nature of employee reactions to changes in job scope brought about by an ES implementation that cannot be captured by traditional linear models. We found support for our model using data collected in a longitudinal field study from 2,794 employees at a telecommunications firm over a period of 12 months. Our findings highlight the key role an ES implementation can have in changing the nature of jobs and how those changes can, in turn, drive job performance and job satisfaction. This research also extends classical job characteristics research by arguing for a more complex relationship between the scope and outcomes of technology-supported jobs.
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        Raman, R., Aljafari, R., Venkatesh, V., and Richardson, V. “Mixed-Methods Research in the Age of Analytics, an Exemplar Leveraging Sentiments from News Articles to Predict Firm Performance,” International Journal of Information Management (64), 2022, 102451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2021.102451

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        Investors and companies have always aspired to make informed investment decisions by using diverse information sources. With the explosion of information sources on the web and emergence of predictive analytics, many investors moved beyond traditional financial measures, as key predictors of firm performance, to textual content from analysts’ reports. Empirical research suggests that these information sources complement each other by providing a clear picture of firm performance, but remains silent on the role of additional textual content that continues to emerge and reach more potential investors on the web. We build on this line of research to examine the effect of textual content from business journals in conjunction with summary measures on cumulative abnormal returns. We use sentiment analysis with machine learning and econometrics methods to examine content extracted from textual articles about S&P 500 index companies that are published in the Wall Street Journal (years 2013–2016). Textual analysis of business journals in conjunction with quantitative measures revealed direct and interaction effects on abnormal returns over time. We also tested for robustness by replicating the analysis with different variable operationalization and observe consistent patterns. Relative to positive sentiments, negative sentiments have more profound effects on cumulative abnormal returns. The effect of positive sentiments becomes weaker when past quantitative measures are high. As information sources continue to emerge on the web, this work makes key contributions to the practice of sentiment analysis in financial markets.
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          Hoehle, H., Venkatesh, V., Brown, S.A., Tepper, B., and Kude, T.C. “Impact of Customer Compensation Strategies on Outcomes and the Mediating Role of Justice Perceptions: A Longitudinal Study of Target’s Data Breach,” MIS Quarterly (46:1), 2022, 299-340. https://doi.org/10.25300/misq/2022/14740

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          Data breaches are a major threat to organizations from both financial and customer relations perspectives. We developed a nomological network linking post-breach compensation strategies to key outcomes, namely continued shopping intentions, positive word-of-mouth, and online complaining, with the effects being mediated by customers’ justice perceptions. We conducted a longitudinal field study investigating Target’s data breach in 2013 that affected more than 110 million customers. We examined customers’ expectations toward compensation immediately after the breach was confirmed (survey 1) and their experiences after reparations were made (survey 2). Evidence from polynomial regression and response surface analyses of data collected from 388 affected customers showed that customers’ justice perceptions were influenced by the actual compensation provided as well as the type and extent of compensation an organization could and should have provided (i.e., customers’ compensation expectations). Interestingly, both positive and negative expectation disconfirmation led to less favorable justice perceptions compared to when expectations were met. Justice perceptions were, in turn, associated with key outcomes. We discuss implications for research on data security, information systems, and justice theory.
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            Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D., and Zhu, Y. “A Cultural Contingency Model of Knowledge Sharing and Job Performance,” Journal of Business Research (140), 2022, 202-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.07.042

            View Abstract
            Drawing from the knowledge management literature, we developed and tested a nomological network related to knowledge sharing – i.e., knowledge seeking and knowledge providing using knowledge management systems. We investigated the effect of cultural contingencies on the prediction of both knowledge seeking and knowledge providing. In addition, we examined the effect of knowledge sharing using a KMS on employee job performance. We conducted a study using a field survey of 224 employees in an organization in the People’s Republic of China and United States. We found that sensitivity to image and sensitivity to organizational incentives influenced both knowledge seeking and knowledge providing, and the effect was varied across individuals with different cultural values. For example, our findings suggested that the negative relationship between sensitivity to image and knowledge seeking was stronger for individuals with collectivistic values than for those with individualistic values. We also found that both knowledge seeking and knowledge providing led to better job performance.
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              Blut, M., Chong, A.Y.L., Tsiga, Z., and Venkatesh, V. “Meta-analysis of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT): Challenging its Validity and Charting a Research Agenda in the Red Ocean,” Journal of the AIS (23:1), 2022, 13-95. https://doi.org/10.17705/1jais.00719

              View Abstract
              There are both formal and informal cries that UTAUT and, by association, the stream of research on technology adoption has reached its limit, with little or no opportunities for new knowledge creation. Such a conclusion is ironic because the theory has not been sufficiently and suitably replicated. It is possible that misspecifications in the various replications, applications, and extensions have led to the incorrect conclusion that UTAUT is more robust than it really is, leaving limited opportunities for future work. Although work on UTAUT has included important variables, predictors, and moderators, absent a faithful use of the original specification, it is impossible to assess the true nature of the effects of the original and additional variables. The present meta-analysis uses 25,619 effect sizes reported by 737,112 users in 1,935 independent samples to address this issue. Consequently, we develop a clear current state-of-the-art and revised UTAUT that extends the original theory with new endogenous mechanisms from different, other theories (i.e., technology compatibility, user education, personal innovativeness, and costs of technology) and new moderating mechanisms to examine the generalizability of UTAUT in different contexts (e.g., technology type and national culture). Based on this revised UTAUT, we present a research agenda that can guide future research on the topic of technology adoption in general and UTAUT in particular.
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                Vaithilingam, S., Nair, M., Macharia, M., and Venkatesh, V. “Mobile Communication and Use Behavior of the Urban Poor in a Developing Country: A Field Study in Malaysia,” International Journal of Information Management (63), 2022, 102440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2021.102440

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                We developed a contextualized model to predict the use of technology among the urban poor. Based on the core idea that, in developing countries, the urban poor face different challenges from those of the rural poor, we argued that five key facilitating conditions (FC)—namely, infrastructure, technical and support services, legal and regulatory framework, financial factors and affordability, and self-efficacy—are the central drivers of both non-instrumental and instrumental use of mobile devices. Situated in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), these FC were found to be important drivers in our study conducted among 396 mobile phone users in a poor urban area in Malaysia. In addition to extending a key UTAUT construct to an important context, our results have important practical implications, in that, to increase non-instrumental and instrumental use, careful attention should be given to co-development of mobile phone friendly policies pertaining to FC in developing countries.
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                  Venkatesh, V. “Adoption and Use of AI Tools: A Research Agenda Grounded in UTAUT,” Annals of Operations Research (308), 2022, 641-652. Venkatesh, V. “Adoption and Use of AI Tools: A Research Agenda Grounded in UTAUT,” Annals of Operations Research (308), 2022, 641-652. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-020-03918-9

                  View Abstract
                  This paper is motivated by the widespread availability of AI tools, whose adoption and consequent benefits are still not well understood. As a first step, some critical issues that relate to AI tools in general, humans in the context of AI tools, and AI tools in the context of operations management are identified. A discussion of how these issues could hinder employee adoption and use of AI tools is presented. Building on this discussion, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology is used as a theoretical basis to propose individual characteristics, technology characteristics, environmental characteristics and interventions as viable research directions that could not only contribute to the adoption literature, particularly as it relates to AI tools, but also, if pursued, such research could help organizations positively influence the adoption of AI tools.
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                    Maruping, L.M., Rai, A., Aljafari, R., and Venkatesh, V. “Overcoming Cross-Organizational Barriers to Success in Offshore Projects,” Industrial Management & Data Systems (121:12), 2021, 2365-2386. https://doi.org/10.1108/imds-09-2020-0559

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                    Purpose – Advances in information technology coupled with the need to build resilience against disruptions by pandemics like COVID-19 continue to emphasize offshoring services in the software industry. Service-level agreements (SLAs) have served as a key mechanism for safeguarding against risk in offshore service arrangements. Yet, variations in service cost and quality persist. This study aims to open up the blackbox linking SLAs to offshore project outcomes by examining (1) how the provisions in these contracts affect the ability of project teams – the work unit primarily in charge of producing the offshored service – to achieve their objectives and fulfill client requirements and (2) how differences in contextual factors shape the effects of these provisions. Design/methodology/approach – The authors incorporate the role of organizational work practice differences to understand the challenges that 270 offshore project teams faced in coordinating and integrating technical and business domain knowledge across organizational boundaries in offshore arrangements. The examined offshore IT projects were managed by a leading software vendor in India and several of its US-based clients over a three-year period. Findings – The authors demonstrate that organizational work practice differences represent a barrier to offshore project success, and that project team transition processes are an important mechanism for overcoming these barriers. Moreover, the authors find that transition processes represent key mediating mechanisms through which SLA provisions affect offshore project outcomes. Originality/value – The study findings shed light on how SLAs shape software project teams’ balance between activities aimed at meeting client needs and those aimed at containing costs.
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                      Kuruzovich, J., Paczkowski, W., Golden, T., Goodarzi, S., and Venkatesh, V. “Telecommuting and Job Outcomes: A Moderated Mediation Model of System Use, Software Quality, and Social Exchange,” Information & Management (58:3), 2021, 103431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2021.103431

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                      This research investigates an artifact-centric view of the telecommuting experience, examining how system use and software quality influence job outcomes of telecommuters. We develop and test our moderated mediation model in a cross-organizational study of 184 teleworkers. Results show the extensive use of telecommuting systems negatively impacts social exchange processes and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance of telecommuters, underscoring limitations of virtual interactions. However, high-quality software can moderate this negative effect, because the negative relationship between telecommuting system use and job outcomes becomes nonsignificant, as telecommuting software quality increases.
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                        Bala, H., Venkatesh, V., Ganster, D.C. and Rai, A. “How Does an Enterprise System Implementation Change Interpersonal Relationships in Organizations,” Industrial Management & Data Systems (121:8), 2021, 1824-1847. https://doi.org/10.1108/imds-06-2020-0380

                        View Abstract
                        Although research has suggested that enterprise system (ES) implementations have major impacts on employee job characteristics and outcomes, there has been limited research that has examined the impacts of ES implementations on interpersonal relationships over time. Building on and extending recent studies that have examined changes in employee job characteristics and outcomes during an ES implementation, this research examined the nature, extent, determinants, and outcomes of changes in an important interpersonal relationship construct—coworker exchange (CWX)—following an ES implementation. CWX is considered a critical aspect of employees’ job and an important determinant of their success in the workplace. Drawing on social exchange theory, we theorize that employees will perceive a change in CWX following an ES implementation. A longitudinal field study over a period of 6 months among 249 employees was conducted. Latent growth modeling was used to analyze the data. We found that employees’ work process characteristics, namely perceived process complexity, perceived process rigidity, and perceived process radicalness, significantly explained change, i.e., decline in our case, in CWX during the shakedown phase of an ES implementation. The decreasing trajectory of change in CWX led to declining job performance and job satisfaction. The role of CWX and its importance in the context of ES implementations is a key novel element of this work.

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                          Venkatesh, V., Hoehle, H., Aloysius, J.A., and Nikkhah, H. “Being at the Cutting Edge of Online Shopping: Role of Recommendations and Discounts on Privacy Perceptions,” Computers in Human Behavior (121), 2021, 106785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106785

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                          Despite the explosion of selling online, customers continue to have privacy concerns about online purchases. To alleviate such concerns, shopping sites seek to employ interventions to encourage users to buy more online. Two common interventions used to promote online sales are: (1) recommendations that help customers choose the right product either based on historic purchase correlations or recommendations suggested by the retailer; and (2) discounts that increase the value of products. Building on privacy calculus, we theorize about how and why key, representative combinations of recommendations and discounts influence the effects of inhibitors and enablers on online purchase intention. Our research design incorporated recommendations coming from different sources for the recommendation (retailer and other customers’ preferences) product relatedness (related products with historic purchases correlated to the focal product and unrelated products with no historic purchase correlation to the focal product) and two types of discounts (regular and bundle). Participants completed a browsing task in a controlled online shopping environment and completed a survey (n = 496). We found mixed results of moderating effects of recommendations and product relatedness on the effect of inhibitors and enablers on purchase intention. Although recommendations did not enhance the effects of inhibitors, they did enhance the effects of enablers on online purchase intention. We also found that product relatedness did not enhance the effect of privacy enablers on online purchase intentions. The results also showed that discounts enhance the effects of enablers, and that discounts can counteract the moderating effect of recommendations on the relationship between inhibitors and purchase intention under certain circumstances. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
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                            Chan, F. K. Y., Thong, J. Y. L., Brown, S. A., and Venkatesh, V. “Service Design and Citizen Satisfaction with E-Government Services: A Multidimensional Perspective,” Public Administration Review (81:5), 2021, 874-894. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13308

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                             This research examines the relationship between service design and citizen satisfaction with e-government services. Based on a multidimensional conceptualization of service, we define three key service perceptions, each comprising different design characteristics, that jointly influence perceived service quality and citizen satisfaction with e government services. The service perceptions and their corresponding design characteristics are: (1) perceptions of a core service—accuracy, completeness, self-service capability, and convenience; (2) perceptions of facilitating services— accessibility, privacy protection, security protection, and user support; and (3) perceptions of supporting services— personalization capability and transparency. We tested our research model using data from a two-stage survey of 3,065 users of three e-government services. The results showed that all design characteristics contributed to their respective service perceptions that influenced perceived service quality that in turn influenced citizen satisfaction. The finding of a three-way interaction among the service perceptions supported their complementary role in influencing perceived service quality.

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