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    * Source:
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, F.D., and Davis, G.B. “User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View,” MIS Quarterly, 27, 2003, 425-478. [Abstract]

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    * Source:
    Venkatesh, V. and Bala, H. “TAM 3: Advancing the Technology Acceptance Model with a Focus on Interventions,” Manuscript in-preparation.

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    * Source:
    Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F.D. "A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies," Management Science, 46, 2000, 186-204. [Abstract]



    Click here for construct definitions

    * Source:
    Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., and Warshaw, P. R. "User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models," Management Science, 35, 1989, 982-1003. [Abstract]

     Construct Definitions

    Attitude: Individual's positive or negative feeling about performing the target behavior (e.g., using a system).

    Behavioral intention: The degree to which a person has formulated conscious plans to perform or not perform some specified future behavior.

    Computer anxiety: The degree of an individual’s apprehension, or even fear, when she/he is faced with the possibility of using computers.

    Computer playfulness: The degree of cognitive spontaneity in microcomputer interactions.

    Computer self-efficacy: The degree to which an individual beliefs that he or she has the ability to perform specific task/job using computer.

    Effort expectancy: The degree of ease associated with the use of the system.

    Facilitating conditions: The degree to which an individual believes that an organizational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the system.

    Image: The degree to which use of an innovation is perceived to enhance one's status in one's social system.

    Job relevance: Individual's perception regarding the degree to which the target system is relevant to his or her job.

    Objective usability: A comparison of systems based on the actual level (rather than perceptions) of effort required to complete specific tasks.

    Output quality: The degree to which an individual believes that the system performs his or her job tasks well.

    Performance expectancy: The degree to which an individual believes that using the system will help him or her to attain gains in job performance.

    Perceived ease of use: See the definition of effort expectancy.

    Perceived enjoyment: The extent to which the activity of using a specific system is perceived to be enjoyable in it’s own right, aside from any performance consequences resulting from system use.

    Perceived usefulness: See the definition of performance expectancy.

    Perception of external control: See the definition of facilitating conditions.

    Result demonstrability: Tangibility of the results of using the innovation.

    Social influence: The degree to which an individual perceives that important others believe he or she should use the new system.

    Subjective norm: Person's perception that most people who are important to him think he should or should not perform the behavior in question.

    Voluntariness: The extent to which potential adopters perceive the adoption decision to be non-mandatory.


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