Venkatesh, V., Maruping L.M., and Brown, S.A. “Role of Time in Self-prediction of Behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (100:2), 2006, 160-176.
This paper examines three specific manifestations of time—anticipation (proximal vs. distal), prior experience with the behavior, and frequency (episodic vs. repeat)—as key contingencies affecting the predictive validity of behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral expectation in predicting behavior. These three temporal contingencies are examined in two longitudinal field studies: (1) study 1—a 6-month study of PC purchase behavior among 861 households and (2) study 2—a 12-month study among 321 employees in the context of a new technology implementation in an organization. In study 1, where the episodic behavior of PC purchase was examined, we found that increasing anticipation (i.e., more distal) weakened the relationship between behavioral intention and behavior and strengthened the relationship between behavioral expectation and behavior. In contrast, increasing experience strengthened the relationship between behavioral intention and behavior and weakened the relationship between behavioral expectation and behavior. In study 2, where the repeat behavior of technology use was examine, we found two significant three-way interactions—(1) the relationship between behavioral intention and behavior is strongest when anticipation is low (i.e., proximal) and experience is high; and (2) the relationship between behavioral expectation and behavior is strongest when anticipation is high (i.e., distal) and experience is low.